What does a blood test mean?
A blood test can say a lot about human health. That is why the therapist almost always sends the patient blood after the reception. Sometimes the test results fall into the patient's hands sooner than the doctor sees them, and indeed it would be nice to know what the blood test means, because every person faces it sooner or later. Let's figure it out.
What does complete blood count mean?
Complete blood count is the most common study of human health. They encounter it during the initial diagnosis of the disease, during the passage of a medical examination. Using the general analysis, the following parameters are determined:
- RBC is the total number of red blood cells. These red blood cells perform the function of supplying the tissues of the body with oxygen and are also responsible for the removal of harmful gases. If the level of red blood cells is below normal, then the body does not receive enough oxygen for normal functioning. A high level of red blood cells can lead to thrombosis - gluing cells together in the walls of blood vessels.For women, the normal level is 3.8-5.5x1012for men - 4.3-6.2 x1012, and for children - 3.2-5.5x1012.
- HGB or Hb - hemoglobin. This is a special protein, which is part of the red blood cells. He is also responsible for the transport of oxygen to the organs. A decrease in hemoglobin levels indicates oxygen deficiency, and a high level is observed when the body is dehydrated. The normal level is 120-140 g / l.
- WBC is the number of leukocytes. White blood cells are white blood cells that protect the body from various bacteria, viruses, parasites, infections. The high level of this indicator, as a rule, indicates that the body is struggling with some ailment. A decrease in the level is observed in various serious blood diseases or HIV. The normal number of leukocytes is 4.0-9.0x109.
- HCT - hematocrit. The analysis shows how much blood is occupied by red blood cells. Elevated levels occur during dehydration, and low indicates a large amount of liquid blood. Normal indicators for men - 39-49%, and for women - 35-45%.
- PLT - platelet count. Platelets are involved in the formation of blood clots in the blood, which is important for damage to blood vessels. Increasing the level can talk about some blood diseases, and also occurs after surgery.A low level is observed in cases of impaired bone marrow, and with increased work of the immune system. The normal content is 180-320x109/ l.
- GPA or GRAN is the number of granulocytes. Granulocytes are a special type of white blood cells. A high number of such cells in the blood indicates the presence of inflammation in the body, a low number can be found in disorders of the bone marrow, as well as in lupus erythematosus. The normal level of granulocytes is 47-72%
- ESR - erythrocyte sedimentation rate. This indicator reflects the protein content in the blood plasma. High speed can speak of inflammation in the body, and low is extremely rare, usually with erythrocytosis or other blood diseases. For men, the normal speed is up to 10 mm / h, and for women - up to 15 mm / h.
- MID or MXD - the content of monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and immature blood cells. These types of cells belong to leukocytes, and their deviation from the normal percentage ratio may indicate an infection, a virus in the body. Norm - 5-10%.
These are the main indicators that can be found in the general analysis of blood. If a particular disease is diagnosed,Additional characteristics of blood cells are investigated, such as the average concentration of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte, the average volume of the erythrocyte, the width of the distribution of the erythrocytes, etc. By the way, if you have met some strange designation in the form of the results of the analysis, you can tell what the blood test means in one way or another.
What does biochemical blood test mean?
In the diagnosis of certain diseases, the biochemical composition of the blood is prescribed. Unlike the general, in it blood is taken from a vein, necessarily on an empty stomach. Biochemical analysis shows, above all, the work of the kidneys, liver, water-salt balance, as well as the content of trace elements. The following indicators are usually examined:
- Glucose. Elevated glucose levels may indicate a potential threat of diabetes or other serious hormone disruptions. The normal level of glucose is 3.5-3.8 mm / l.
- Urea or residual nitrogen levels. These are substances that remain in the blood after it is filtered in the kidneys. An increase in the urea rate indicates a problem in the kidneys. Urea, which is retained in the blood, can lead to the most complicated body poisoning and diseases such as gouty arthritis. The norm is 2.5-8.2 mmol / l.
- CreatineThis blood count also reflects the work of the kidneys in the body. A high level usually indicates renal failure. The norm for a person is 44-106 ml / l.
- Cholesterol. It reflects the intensity of metabolism in the body. High cholesterol in the blood leads to various diseases in the cardiovascular system, as well as atherosclerosis. The rate in human blood is 2.6-6.5 mmol / l.
- Bilirubin. This indicator is always increased in case of viral hepatitis, mechanical rubella, sometimes indicating liver problems. Norm - 22.2 ml / l.
- Total protein The analysis shows the overall level of human health. As a rule, a low level of protein is observed with long-term diseases, as well as with exhaustion of the body. Norm - 62-82 gr / l.
I hope you now know what the blood test results mean. Be attentive to your health!