What is realism?
Literature has a rich history. Throughout its development, it has followed many styles and trends, one of which is realism. If you need to find out what realism is and what role it plays in literature, we will now tell you about it.
Realism in literature is an artistic trend whose main goal is the truthful reproduction of reality. The work, written in the spirit of realism, shows us the surrounding reality as naturally as possible, just as it really is. This is a short definition of what realism is in literature.
In Soviet times, there was such a thing as socialist realism. What is socialist realism? This is one of the artistic methods that originated in the Soviet Union in the 1930s. In those days it was a very common style, it was recommended to writers, and most often even imposed. Socialist realism has a close connection with propaganda, as well as with ideology.In 1932, it was approved by the party organs of literature and art. And parallel to this, unofficial art was created in the USSR. Works in this genre were supposed to convey the events of the era, which "dynamically changed in the development of the revolution." Dialectical materialist philosophy laid the ideological content of this method, and also it was laid by the communist ideas of Marxism (second half of the 19th — 20th centuries). Covering the sphere of artistic activity, this method included drama, literature, architecture, painting, sculpture, music and cinema.
There was also critical realism. What is critical realism? It is also one of the artistic methods for the designation of Marxist literary criticism, which followed socialist realism. This trend in literature has developed in the capitalist society in the XIX century. Opening the conditionality of the circumstances of human life, its psychology and social environment, first of all, is inherent in critical realism. These included the novels of J. Eliot and O. Balzac. In Russia, materialist aesthetics was involved in substantiating critical realism. These are works by N. A.Dobrolyubova, N. G. Chernyshevsky, V. G. Belinsky. Maxim Gorky considered AP Chekhov the last great representative of critical realism. And socialist realism, according to the real information and ideas of the Soviet Union, was considered a new reading of the artistic method. And this counting began with Maxim Gorky himself.
As for hyperrealism, this term is used to refer to the flow of modern art (painting, sculpture) in the 1990–2000s, and also the work of European photorealists of the 1970s refers to hyperrealism.