What is spelling?
We encounter the concept of spelling in school, but over time some knowledge is forgotten. We offer to refresh your memory and remember what spelling is.
Spelling refers to the rules for the design of the transfer of words and speech in writing. Spelling and spelling are synonymous with each other. The purpose of spelling is to create a unified system for writing words and expressions.
The spelling rules are governed by a special institution called the Academy of Linguistics. This institution approves and changes the rules of the spelling of the Russian language.
Consider the three basic principles approved by this institution.
Principles of spelling
The first principle of spelling is morphological. The morphological principle is based on morphemes, which in words are most often expressed in the form of a so-called root, for example, run - run - run across. In all these words, the root will be �running.�Accordingly, the morphological principle determines how the word, its root, suffix, prefix and ending will change. It is worth noting that in the morpheme plays primarily the spelling of words, and not their pronunciation. An important point in the morphological principle are various rules, for example, the spelling of words with suffixes -tsya- and -to-.
The next principle is semantic. Semantics reflect the semantic load of words. The essence of this principle is that it does not matter how the word sounds, the main thing is its essence and meaning. For example, under the water can be understood not only liquid, but also a drink, as well as a body of water. The word can not change, but the meaning will be different. The most interesting semantic analysis is in the study of phraseological units.
The third principle is phonetic. Its essence lies in the correct pronunciation of words, the placement of stresses and the pronunciation of consonants. Phonetics studies the composition of the word, the number of consonants and vowels in it. Also attention is paid to the set of syllables. Phonetics pays close attention to the sound of words. At the same time, in the modern world, stress is rarely put down, therefore this principle is more important for oral speech.
Spelling regulates the declensions, the writing of indefinite forms of the verb, the writing of words of the imperative mood and other rules of the Russian language.
The greatest contribution to the development and formation of spelling was made by Lomonosov, who first proposed the use of phonetic and morphological principles, and also described their combinations in detail. Trediakovsky, a scientist who became the inventor of the phonetic principle, was also interested in spelling.