What is income?
We all live in a world far from natural production, which means that we need goods and services that we cannot produce ourselves. We buy the necessary goods, and at the same time we sell what we produce ourselves. And many do not produce in their own enterprise, but working for someone. All funds received from one and the other together constitute what is the income of a person.
So, income is money or goods received by an individual as a result of any activity. The same income can arise from a legal entity and from a state when interacting with other countries, unions.
Incomes of individuals
Incomes of individuals (population) are the incomes of citizens received in the form of wages, scholarships, pensions, various allowances, payments, compensations. Also, the income from the sale of various goods, regardless of whether you made it yourself or bought cheaper, and sold more expensive. Also, revenues arise from the provision of services, from the sale of large movable and immovable property: apartments, cars, houses, etc.So, income includes funds from the rental of any property. Very often poor mothers have a question - are alimony income? Of course, this money is your income, you will show it in a certificate for a bank for a loan, in a certificate to social services for the calculation of subsidies for utilities or children's benefits. But alimony, as well as child benefits, lump-sum payments for childbirth, maternity benefits for the hospital are not taxed. But incomes are!
Income of legal entities
The income of legal entities is a material benefit obtained as a result of the organization’s actions in the sale of its product or service. That is, it is money from the sale of what the company produces. To income legal. The individual applies and the economic benefit from the receipt of assets in any other property. Everything that comes to the organization’s account (with the exception of the property of the owners, start-up capital) is the income of the enterprise.
All income of legal entities and individuals in the country is subject to various types of taxes. And, taxes are the income of the state. Of course, the range of income received by the state is very large, but taxes constitute a significant part of them. All taxpayers' money forms the state budget, allowing to maintain and finance state structures - the police, education, medicine, roads, culture, and much more. Budget revenues are deductions of enterprises of all forms of ownership, size, activities, as well as individuals. In addition to taxes, taxes, payments for internal and external trade operations with real estate, nature management objects, national cultural values and much more go into state revenue.
Income in the economy
Economics has its own concepts of income. Gross income, net income - these phrases have been heard by any person at least once in their life. These concepts need to know when calculating the taxable amount in the simplified tax system. Two kinds of simplified allocate this amount differently. If you pay gross tax (that is, the total, with all the money received into the account), then your rate is 6%. And if you are counting net income (gross minutes all the expenses of an enterprise for production), then you have to pay 15% of this type of income.In this case, not all profits are income in the enterprise, but only the difference between gross income and costs.
Now many people are changing their lives for the better, acquiring various benefits (apartments, cars, household appliances, furniture), with the help of loans. Whether a loan is income, whether to pay tax on this income - these questions concern every law-abiding citizen. No, a loan is not a taxable base, and is generally not income. After all, you have not acquired material gain after its acquisition. You spent it on the purchase of property at an adequate market price. But if you have already repaid this loan and decided to “weld” on the sale of the acquired property, then the profit from this will be income. And with it you pay a legitimate tax. And in this case it doesn’t matter that you turned out to be a “talented” seller and bought an apartment for a million, and then sold it for 500 thousand. Your income is exactly 500 thousand.
And, two more rather rare types of income should be called - winnings in the lottery and treasures (tax on them is 36%).