What tests do pregnant women take?
When menstruation is delayed, the woman’s first thoughts: “What if I'm pregnant ?!”, and in order not to torment myself with guesses, you need to check this. The most common method is a pregnancy test. It consists in lowering the tester into the morning urine (since it is the morning urine that contains the highest concentration of the “pregnancy hormone”). Then, within a few minutes, one or two strips appear. The first option indicates a negative result, the second - a positive one. But a similar test will show pregnancy only after two weeks of its course. In addition, they are often not accurate in their testimony, and then you need to either take another test, or turn to more accurate analyzes. First of all, they include a blood test in pregnant women for chorionic gonadotropin, or abbreviated as it is called "CG", its content during pregnancy increases dramatically. At the same time, a medical center may offer an ultrasound scan of the uterus cavity. In this case, the woman will find out if she is pregnant or not, find out the duration of the pregnancy and whether it is proceeding normally.Also, ultrasound can determine if there is an ectopic pregnancy, which always has a negative outcome.
So, if a woman is pregnant, then it’s time to get registered with the antenatal clinic, which is located at the place of residence. And now we will provide approximate information about what tests pregnant women take at different times.
Up to 12 weeks, the first trimester of pregnancy takes place, at which the woman must pass such a list of tests:
- Blood test for aids
- General and biochemical blood test
- Vaginal smear
- Blood test for syphilis
- General urine analysis
- Blood group and Rh factor
- Blood test for hepatitis
- Blood test for sugar
In case of a departure from the norm of the results of these tests or in the presence of any hereditary diseases, the gynecologist may also send to pass additional tests:
- Hormone testing
- Analysis of urogenital infections
Also, if the spouses do not match the Rh factors, a blood test is taken from pregnant women several times during the whole period in order to notice in time the possible presence of antibodies to the red blood cells of the fetus. However, a woman is obliged to visit the gynecologist every month during pregnancy.
At the same time, you will need to do an electrocardiogram, that is, an ECG and pass these doctors:
Around this period, women are prescribed an ultrasound scan (11-13 weeks) in order to see the number of fetuses and find out if the child (s) are developing normally. The screening study includes not only ultrasound, but also, if desired, a blood test for hCG and AFP (for the risk of having a child with pathologies, Down syndrome). The last analysis is prescribed to someone for free, but to someone it is paid and at will. The results have strong errors, remember this!
This period starts from the 13th week and ends on the 24th week. Here the following analysis is not obligatory, but the woman will be offered to undergo the so-called "triple test", where they will take blood to determine the level:
- CG - chorionic gonadotropin
- AFP - alpha fetoprotein
- NE - unconjugated estriol
This examination is paid, as it is not necessary to do it, it will show whether there are abnormalities in the fetus, such as Down syndrome. The result again has strong errors, especially at a later date, when a lot of time has passed after the ultrasound scan.The test results are processed together with the results of ultrasound, they are interrelated. If deviations from the norm are visible, then the woman is referred for additional examination under the name amniocentesis - this is nothing more than a study of the amniotic fluid. After that, doctors confirm or reject the previous results of the triple test. This examination is done under the control of an ultrasound scan, and the doctor reports that amniocentesis can trigger a miscarriage with a probability of 1%.
Also at this time, the number of visits to the gynecologist increases, and should be done 1 time in 2 weeks. Standard tests have not been canceled: a general analysis of urine and blood. In addition, the blood test for antibodies remains if the woman has a negative Rh factor, and her husband has a positive one. The second ultrasound is scheduled for 20-22 weeks of pregnancy, where the gynecologist will accurately tell the sex of the fetus, its development and the possibility of defects in the internal systems of the body, will also tell about the structure of the baby’s body, the state of the placenta and the amniotic fluid of the woman.
This trimester starts at 25 weeks and ends at 38-40 weeks of labor. We will review it weekly, describing the surveys and analyzes they suggest.
Only one blood test is given, after which the level of hemoglobin in the blood will be known, and accordingly, the absence or presence of anemia.
The woman continues to visit the gynecologist once every two weeks. And he also during this period issues an exchange card, where all the results of the analyzes and information about the woman are recorded. In many antenatal clinics, the exchange card is kept in two copies, and one of them is in the woman’s arms from the moment of registration (7-8 weeks of pregnancy). From now on, the card must be carried constantly with you, since childbirth can begin at any time, and if a woman doesn’t have this card, the doctors will deliver it to a specialized maternity hospital where all those who do not have a residence or residence permit are delivered cards. This is a very important point, because during childbirth doctors will not know whether a woman has any contraindications and problems for the child, its position in the womb. This can create great difficulties. You may have to make a decision about an artificial birth, that is, a cesarean section, which carries a risk to the life of the child and woman.
The gynecologist draws up maternity leave for a pregnant woman, if she works. At this time, no analysis without the need to do.
Starting from this time, dopplerography is performed. This study allows you to accurately determine the blood flow in the vessels of the uterus, the main vessels of the child and the placenta. That is what will allow doctors to know how much oxygen is supplied to the child and whether there is enough of it. If the blood flow rate is below normal, then CTG is prescribed - cardiotocography. It happens as follows: a woman lies down on a couch, and a special tape with sensors is fastened on her stomach. This allows doctors to determine the motor activity of the child. If it is not normal, then fetal hypoxia is possible. Also using this study to determine the contractile activity of the uterus and its tone.
During this period, the last ultrasound is done, where the doctor again looks at the position and growth of the child. And almost the same tests that are done in the first trimester, namely:
- Vaginal swab
- Blood for aids
- Blood for syphilis
- Blood chemistry
If everything is normal, the woman usually visits the gynecologist once a week. The analysis of urine from pregnant women during this time is taken continuously. If the test results are disappointing,then a woman is taken under special control by prescribing various drugs that bring blood flow back to normal; do again ultrasound and doplerometry. The same is done in the case of delayed delivery.
Now you know what tests you need to take to pregnant women, do not be afraid that there are so many of them and do not refuse any of them, because they warn doctors about the negative consequences that can occur both in relation to you and your child. And do not panic if something went wrong. Regarding the date of birth, in this case, the gynecologist will refer you to the maternity hospital, where you will be placed on conservation under the supervision of doctors, who at any time will do everything possible to maintain your health and your child.
And most importantly, do not worry during pregnancy, otherwise it may adversely affect the health of the child.